This brief compiles recent research on the impact of equal pay laws and policies on the gender wage gap.
Latinas have made important strides in education, business creation, and political engagement. In recent decades, they have significantly increased their high school graduation rate and representation in teaching, law, medicine, and management professions. Yet in 2019, the average Latina earned only 55.4 percent of White non-Latino men’s earnings.
Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s, 1985–2019 (Full-Time, Year-Round Workers) with Projections for Pay Equity, by Race/Ethnicity
Notes: Estimates presented for All Women are based on [...]
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have made important advances socially, economically, and politically—they are starting their own businesses, getting elected to congress, and serving essential roles in their families and communities. Despite their efforts, they continue to face a range of obstacles to their and their family’s economic wellbeing and overall economic security.
Same Gap, Different Year: The Gender Wage Gap, 2019 Earnings Differences by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity
The rate of progress toward closing the gender pay gap did not increase in 2019. If the pace of change in the annual earnings ratio continues at the same rate as it has since 1960, it will take another 39 years, until 2059, for men and women to reach parity.1 This projection for equal pay has remained unchanged for the past four years.
Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s, 1960–2019 (Full-Time, Year-Round Workers) with Projections for Pay Equity in 2059
Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s Median Earnings, 1960-2019 (Full-time, Year-round Workers) with Projection for Pay Equity in 2059
The COVID-19 pandemic has illuminated the pernicious effect of gender and racial inequality, and the profound undervaluation of some of the most essential jobs for society, ones that require the care and supports of families.
Women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations, whether they work in occupations predominantly done by women, occupations predominantly done by men, or occupations with a more even mix of men and women. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 125 occupations.
The gender wage gap in weekly earnings for full-time workers in the United States narrowed marginally between 2018 and 2019. In 2019, the ratio of women’s to men’s median weekly full-time earnings was 81.5 percent, an increase of 0.4 percent since 2018, when the ratio was 81.1 percent, leaving a wage gap of 18.5 percent, compared with 18.9 percent in 2018.
Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s, 1985-2018 (Full-time, Year-Round Workers) with Projections for Pay Equity, by Race/Ethnicity
Source: IWPR analysis of data from P-38 Historical Income [...]