Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and the Economy
IWPR’s Program on Race, Ethnicity, Gender and the Economy conducts original research and policy analysis using intersectional and racial equity frameworks to better understand the experiences of women of color, their families and communities in the economy and society.
Throughout the year, we organize convenings, symposia, and roundtables with national leaders, scholars, and practitioners and other key stakeholders on issues related to race, ethnicity, gender and the economy.
The report aims to amplify the historical and current contributions of Black domestic workers to the broader domestic worker movement. Using available data, the report describes the experiences of millions of Black women across the United States, and offers recommendations where the opportunities for Black women can be realized.
Despite their high labor force participation, Black women have historically been concentrated in a small number of occupations with low pay and poor working conditions.
Latinas have made important strides in education, business creation, and political engagement. In recent decades, they have significantly increased their high school graduation rate and representation in teaching, law, medicine, and management professions. Yet in 2019, the average Latina earned only 55.4 percent of White non-Latino men’s earnings.
Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s, 1985-2019 (Full-time, Year-Round Workers) with Projections for Pay Equity, by Race/Ethnicity
Notes: Estimates presented for All Women are based on the earnings ratio for full-time, year-round workers between all women and all men, while the estimates for White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic women are based on the earnings ratio for full-time, year-round workers of each group relative to White men’s full-time, year-round earnings. Earnings data for Asian women are only published from 1988. Source: IWPR analysis of data from P-38 Historical Income Tables, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements. < https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-income-people.html> (accessed September 15, 2020).
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have made important advances socially, economically, and politically—they are starting their own businesses, getting elected to congress, and serving essential roles in their families and communities. Despite their efforts, they continue to face a range of obstacles to their and their family’s economic wellbeing and overall economic security.
The COVID-19 pandemic has illuminated the pernicious effect of gender and racial inequality, and the profound undervaluation of some of the most essential jobs for society, ones that require the care and supports of families.