“In terms of whether there are negatives for women, I can only think of [anecdotal evidence],” said Institute for Women’s Policy Research VP and executive director Barbara Gault. “I haven’t seen any research showing that there are negatives, but [even] if women are choosing not to have children even though they would like to because they fear they need to prioritize their career or because they can’t balance a family and career successfully, they’re missing out on that experience.”

While childless women may find themselves with too much work, moms often face the opposite problem. “Women with children are a little less likely to be hired,” said Kevin Miller, a senior research with the American Association of University Women. “When they’re offered a salary, they’re often offered somewhat smaller amounts.”

“There’s about a 5% reduction in pay for each child a woman has,” Gault said. “It works in the other direction for men, around 4 or 5% [additional for each child].” In other words, there is effectively a business-enabled wealth transfer from mothers to fathers.