The Fed’s study squares with other research showing that jobs historically dominated by women are increasingly vulnerable to automation. About half a million office and administrative jobs are expected to disappear in six years, according to a recent analysis from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. About 400,000 of those are held by women, researchers said.

“The jobs most commonly held by women — cashiers, secretaries, and bookkeeping clerks, for example — face some of the highest risks of becoming automated in the future,” the IWPR concluded. “And while men are not immune to the risks of technological change, women are even more likely to work in jobs where technology and automation threaten to displace them.”

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