Since the 1996 welfare reform legislation, government support programs for low-income families have emphasized “work-first” strategies, viewing employment as the primary route to self-sufficiency. The employment situations of welfare leavers and other low-wage workers, however, show considerable instability. Most welfare leavers, for instance, find jobs, but many lose their jobs fairly quickly and experience a substantial period of unemployment before finding another job. While job changes can lead to improved earnings for some workers, this does not seem to be the case for most low-skilled workers or former welfare recipients. For these workers, job retention is crucial for accumulating work experience and improving earnings over time. Yet, for many low-wage workers or welfare leavers who are single mothers facing the dual responsibilities of work and family, sustaining employment and earning a living wage pose a tremendous challenge.