By Maria Lamagna

In some ways, men also tend to have higher expectations for their work lives and economic security, said Ariane Hegewisch, the program director for employment and earnings at the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, a think tank based in Washington, D.C. They are more likely to negotiate when an employer doesn’t explicitly tell employees that wages are negotiable, according to a study from the University of Chicago. And women? “We know women often may feel, ‘How much of a right do I have to be pissed off?’” she said.

There may have been technical reasons why the results differed for men and women. Many men and women participants in the program took classes in fields that tend to be female-dominated, she pointed out, and may not be professions men are willing to do as frequently. The top programs they participated in during 2009 were sales, hotels and restaurants, professional services, beauty, health and commerce. (Studies have shown that as women take over a traditionally male-dominated field, the pay in that field drops.)

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