Washington, DC

— According to an

Institute for Women’s Policy Research



of the December employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), men have recovered all of the jobs they lost in the recession and now hold more jobs than at their pre-recession peak. Women surpassed their previous employment peak in September 2013. In November,

men gained two out of every three jobs added

on nonfarm payrolls (213,000 jobs for men and 108,000 jobs for women, an increase of 321,000 total jobs added).

In November, women’s employment growth was


in Professional and Business Services (37,000 jobs gained by women), Educational and Health Services (25,000 jobs gained by women), and Retail Trade (23,700 jobs gained by women). In an

analysis of job growth

in the first five years of the recovery, IWPR found that men and women have both gained the most jobs in industries with mid-level wages, (such as Professional and Business Services) or low wages (such as Leisure and Hospitality), and have seen slower job growth (or losses) in higher paying industries, such as Information, Financial Activities, and most significantly, Government.

“With men’s job gains this month, the jobs recovery from the recession is finally complete,” said

IWPR President Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D.

“But more months of strong job growth are needed, along with higher wage growth, to fuel stronger economic growth and improve opportunities for both the long-term unemployed and the many young workers entering the labor market.”

According to the household survey data reported by the BLS, the

unemployment rates

vary among different groups of workers:

  • –The

    unemployment rate for women

    aged 16 and older

    decreased slightly

    to 5.8 percent in November from 5.9 percent in October. The

    unemployment rate for men

    aged 16 and older


    to 5.9 percent in November from 5.6 percent in October.

  • –Unemployment rate by race/ethnicity:

    Among workers aged 20 and older, unemployment is

    higher among black women and men

    (9.6 percent and 11.2 percent, respectively) and

    Hispanic women and men

    (6.4 percent and 5.8 percent, respectively), compared with white women and men (4.5 percent and 4.6 percent, respectively).

  • –Unemployment rate among single mothers


    to 8.2 percent in November from 8.7 percent in October. Unemployment for single mothers is substantially lower than its peak four years ago, 13.4 percent in July and August 2010.

The Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR)

is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization that conducts rigorous research and disseminates its findings to address the needs of women and their families, promote public dialogue, and strengthen communities and societies.