Employment and Earnings2020-08-10T20:16:48+00:00

Employment and Earnings

Whether paid or unpaid, women’s work is crucial for their families’ economic security and well-being. Greater gender equality in paid and unpaid work will reduce poverty and improve economic growth and prosperity; persistent inequity in employment and family work is costing all of us. Women are held back by the undervaluation of historically female work, workplaces designed as if workers had no family responsibilities, and a broken-down work-family infrastructure.

IWPR’s Employment and Earnings program highlights the extent of pay inequalities, and the role played by stark occupational segregation in perpetuating unequal pay. We conduct research and analysis on women’s labor force participation and employment trends; workforce development, non-traditional employment, and apprenticeships; the impact of sex discrimination and harassment on women’s career advancement and mobility; the gender pay gap and pay inequity across race and ethnicity; work-family policies and employer practices; the and the impact of automation and technological advances on women workers.

We work with policymakers, employers, advocates, and practitioners to identify promising practices and policy solutions.

Holding Up Half the Sky: Mothers as Workers, Primary Caregivers, & Breadwinners During COVID-19

The loss of jobs in sectors dominated by women will have a devastating impact of families, especially those headed by single mothers or where women are the primary or co-breadwinner. One in two of more than 30 million families in the U.S. with children under the age of 18 have a breadwinner mother, who contributes at least 40 percent of the earnings to the household.

The Gender Wage Gap: 2019 Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity

The gender wage gap in weekly earnings for full-time workers in the United States narrowed marginally between 2018 and 2019. In 2019, the ratio of women’s to men’s median weekly full-time earnings was 81.5 percent, leaving a wage gap of 18.5 percent.

Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s, 1985-2018

Full-time, Year-Round Workers with Projections for Pay Equity, by Race/Ethnicity

The Future of Care Work: Improving the Quality of America’s Fastest-Growing Jobs

Paid adult care work jobs are expected to increase substantially in the coming years, due to both an aging population and a comparatively low risk of automation for many of these jobs. These jobs, however, are among the lowest quality occupations in the U.S. labor market, with paid adult care workers facing low earnings, limited access to benefits, high rates of injury on the job, and scheduling unpredictability.

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Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s, 1985-2018 (Full-time, Year-Round Workers) with Projections for Pay Equity, by Race/Ethnicity

Notes: Estimates presented for All Women are based on the earnings ratio for full-time, year-round workers between all women and all men, while the estimates for White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic women are based on the earnings ratio for full-time, year-round workers of each [...]

By |September 28, 2020|

State-by-State Earnings for American Indian and Alaska Native Women: Wage Gaps Across the States

American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women have made important advances socially, economically, and politically—they are starting their own businesses, getting elected to congress, and serving essential roles in their families and communities. Despite their efforts, they continue to face a range of obstacles to their and their family’s economic wellbeing and overall economic security.

By |September 28, 2020|

Same Gap, Different Year. The Gender Wage Gap: 2019 Earnings Differences by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity

The rate of progress toward closing the gender pay gap did not increase in 2019. If the pace of change in the annual earnings ratio continues at the same rate as it has since 1960, it will take another 39 years, until 2059, for men and women to reach parity.1 This projection for equal pay has remained unchanged for the past four years.

By |September 16, 2020|

Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s Median Earnings, 1960-2019 (Full-time, Year-round Workers) with Projection for Pay Equity in 2059

Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s Median Earnings, 1960-2019 (Full-time, Year-round Workers) with Projection for Pay Equity in 2059

By |September 15, 2020|

Black Women to reach Equal Pay with White Men in 2130

The COVID-19 pandemic has illuminated the pernicious effect of gender and racial inequality, and the profound undervaluation of some of the most essential jobs for society, ones that require the care and supports of families.

By |August 13, 2020|

Halting Recovery Leaves Women’s Unemployment in Double Digits, and Women’s Payroll Employment Still 6.9 Million Below Pre-Crisis Levels

New jobs figures from July show much less job growth than in the previous month, and while women were the majority of those who gained jobs, they continue to face a higher jobs deficit than men, according to the U.S. Bureau for Labor Statistics latest Employment Situation release.

By |August 7, 2020|