Employment and Earnings2020-12-09T18:08:37-04:00

Trends in Employment and Earnings

Women’s status in the area of employment and earnings has improved on two indicators since the publication of IWPR’s last national report on the status of women, the 2004 Status of Women in the States, and remained unchanged or declined on two others. Women’s median annual earnings for full-time, year-round work in 2013 ($39,157) were nearly identical to their earnings for similar work in 2002 ($39,108 when adjusted to 2013 dollars). The gender earnings ratio improved during this time from 76.6 to 78.3 percent, narrowing the gender wage gap by 1.7 percentage points, and the share of women working in professional or managerial occupations grew from 33.2 to 39.9 percent. Women’s labor force participation rate, however, declined from 59.6 in 2002 to 57.0 percent in 2014.

1. District of Columbia51. Mississippi
2. Maryland50. West Virginia
3. Massachusetts49. Idaho
4. Connecticut48. Louisiana
5. New York47. Alabama
808, 1994

The Clinton Round: An Analysis of the Impact of Current Proposals to “Free” Single Mothers from Welfare Dependence

Since its beginnings, there has been heated public debate about whether AFDC should be a relatively ungenerous stop-gap program, or an anti-poverty program specifically designed to meet the needs of families headed by single women.

108, 1994

Few Welfare Moms Fit the Stereotypes

In contrast to stereotypes of pathological dependency on public assistance, single mothers participating in the AFDC program actually “package” income from several different sources, including paid employment, means- and non-means tested welfare benefits, and income from other family members, to provide for themselves and their children. These patterns are described in a new Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) study, “Welfare that Works,” based on a nationally-representative sample of single welfare mothers generated from the US Bureau of the Census’ Survey of Income and Program Participation.

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