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Recent Publications

Latest Reports from IWPR

College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society
by Barbara Gault, Ph.D., Lindsey Reichlin, M.A., Stephanie Román (April 2014)

This report was prepared by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) as a part of a series of papers on defining college affordability sponsored by the Lumina Foundation. The report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children.

 

The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation and by Race and Ethnicity, 2013
by Ariane Hegewisch and Stephanie Keller Hudiburg (April 2014)

Women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations, whether they work in occupations predominantly done by women, occupations predominantly done by men, or occupations with a more even mix of men and women. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 112 occupations ; there are only three occupations in which women have higher median weekly earnings than men. In 101 of the 112 occupations, the gender earnings ratio of women’s median weekly earnings to men’s is 0.95 or lower (that is, a wage gap of at least 5 cents per dollar earned by men); in 17 of these occupations the gender earnings ratio is lower than 0.75 (that is, a wage gap of more than 25 cents per dollar earned by men).

 

Women Gained 99,000 Jobs in March
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (April 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the April employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), women gained 99,000 jobs on nonfarm payrolls in March, while men gained 93,000 for an increase of 192,000 jobs in March. In March, women’s employment growth was strongest in Professional and Business Services (29,000 jobs gained by women), Retail Trade (26,000 jobs gained by women), Education and Health Services (24,000 jobs gained by women), and Leisure and Hospitality (15,000 jobs gained by women).

 

The Gender Wage Gap: 2013; Differences by Race and Ethnicity, No Growth in Real Wages for Women
by Ariane Hegewisch, Claudia Williams, Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., and Stephanie Keller Hudiburg (March 2014)

The gender wage gap in the United States has not seen significant improvement in recent years, and remains a reality for women across racial and ethnic groups. In 2013, the ratio of women’s to men’s median weekly full-time earnings was 82.1 percent, an increase of more than one percentage point since 2012,when the ratio was 80.9 percent (but still slightly lower than the 2011 ratio of 82.2 percent). This corresponds to a weekly gender wage gap of 17.9 percent. Real earnings have remained largely unchanged since 2012; women’s median weekly earnings increased by $5 to $706 in 2013; men’s median weekly earnings increased to $860, a marginal increase of $7 compared with 2012.

 

Women Gained 99,000 Jobs in February
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (March 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the March employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), women gained 99,000 jobs on nonfarm payrolls in February, while men gained 76,000 for a net increase of 175,000 jobs in February. In February, women’s employment growth was strongest in Professional and Business Services (55,000 jobs gained by women), Education and Health Services (24,000 jobs gained by women), Leisure and Hospitality (14,000 jobs gained by women), Financial Activities (12,000 jobs gained by women), and Government (11,000 jobs gained by women). Women lost 16,000 jobs in Trade, Transportation, and Utilities including 10,000 jobs in Retail Trade alone.

 

Valuing Good Health in Illinois: The Costs and Benefits of Earned Sick Time
by Claudia Williams (March 2014)

This briefing paper uses data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. Census Bureau to evaluate costs and benefits of Illinois’ Earned Sick Time Act. It estimates how much time off Illinois workers would use under the proposed policy and the costs to employers for that earned sick time. This analysis also uses findings from previous peer-reviewed research to estimate cost-savings associated with the proposed policy, through reduced turnover, reduced spread of contagious disease in the workplace, increased productivity; minimized nursing-home stays, and reduced norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes. The study is one of a series of analyses by IWPR examining the effects of earned sick time policies.

 

Paid Sick Days in Chicago Would Lower Health Care Costs by Reducing Unnecessary Emergency Department Visits
by Claudia Williams (March 2014)

In Chicago, 42 percent of the private workforce, or approximately 461,000 employees, lack access to paid sick days. This fact sheet reports findings from research by the Institute for Women's Policy Research (IWPR) on how increased access to paid sick days would improve both accesses to health care and health outcomes in the City of Chicago. The research also quantifies the savings gained by providing access to paid sick days to all workers, by preventing unnecessary emergency department visits in Chicago.

 

Valuing Good Health in Chicago: The Costs and Benefits of Earned Sick Time
by Claudia Williams (March 2014)

This briefing paper uses data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. Census Bureau to evaluate costs and benefits of Chicago’s Earned Sick Time Ordinance. It estimates how much time off Chicago workers would use under the proposed policy and the costs to employers for that earned sick time. This analysis also uses findings from previous peer-reviewed research to estimate cost-savings associated with the proposed policy, through reduced turnover, reduced spread of contagious disease in the workplace, prevention of productivity losses from employees working while sick, minimized nursing-home stays, and reduced norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes. The study is one of a series of analyses by IWPR examining the effects of earned sick time policies.

 

Paid Sick Days Access in the United States: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Occupation, Earnings, and Work Schedule
by Claudia Williams and Barbara Gault (March 2014)

Paid sick days bring substantial benefits to employers, workers, families, and communities. The economic and public health benefits of paid sick leave coverage include safer work environments; improved work life balance, reduced spread of contagion; and reduced health care costs. Access to this important benefit, however, is still too rare, and is unequally distributed across the U.S. population, with differences by race and ethnicity, occupation, earnings levels, and work schedules. Utilizing data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), IWPR finds that in 2012, approximately 61 percent of private-sector workers age 18 and older in the U.S. had access to paid sick days (Figure 1); up from 57 percent in 2009. More than 41 million workers lack access.

 

Access to Earned Sick Leave in San Diego
by Claudia Williams (February 2014)

An analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) reveals that about 433,500 private sector employees in San Diego lack even a single earned sick day. Access to earned sick leave promotes healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness, , increasing productivity, and supporting work and family balance. This briefing paper presents estimates of lack of earned sick leave in San Diego by sex, race and ethnicity, industry, and occupation through analysis of government data sources, including the 2011–2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 2009–2011 American Community Survey (ACS).

 
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Access to Paid Sick Days by Place of Work in the Chicago Metropolitan Area
by Claudia Williams and Jeff Hayes, Ph.D. (February 2014)

 

Men Gained 164,000 Jobs in January
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (February 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the February employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), women lost 51,000 jobs on nonfarm payrolls in January while men gained 164,000 for a net increase of 113,000 jobs in January. In January, women’s employment growth was weakest in Government (30,000 jobs lost by women) and Professional and Business Services (14,000 jobs lost by women).

 

Testimony of Heidi Hartmann before House Democratic Steering and Policy Committee
by Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D. (January 2014)

IWPR President Heidi Hartmann's testimony on equal pay and the minimum wage before the House Democratic Steering and Policy Committee for the hearing, "When Women Succeed, America Succeeds: Moving Forward on the Five-Year Anniversary of Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act," held on January 29, 2014.

 

Pay Secrecy and Wage Discrimination
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2014)

About half of all workers (51 percent of women and 47 percent of men) report that the discussion of wage and salary information is either discouraged or prohibited and/or could lead to punishment. Most government agencies have formal grade and step systems that make general wage and salary information public (only 18 percent of women and 11 percent of men in the public sector report discouragement or prohibition of wage and salary discussions).

 

How Equal Pay for Working Women would Reduce Poverty and Grow the American Economy
by Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., Jeffrey Hayes, Ph.D., and Jennifer Clark (January 2014)

Persistent earnings inequality for working women translates into lower pay, less family income, and more poverty in families with a working woman, which is of no small consequence to working families. About 71 percent of all mothers in the United States work for pay. Of these, about two-thirds (68 percent) are married and typically have access to men’s incomes, but married women’s earnings are nevertheless crucial to family support. One-third (32 percent) are single mothers and often the sole support of their families. And many without children, both single and married, work to support themselves and other family members. This briefing paper summarizes analyses of the 2010-2012 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic supplement and uses statistical controls for labor supply, human capital, and labor market characteristics to estimate: 1) how much women’s earnings and family incomes would rise with equal pay; 2) how much women and their families lose because women earn less than similarly qualified men; and 3) how much the economy as a whole suffers from inequality in pay between women and men.

 

Job Growth Slows in December: Women Gained All 74,000 Jobs Added to Payrolls
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2014)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the January employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), women gained 75,000 jobs added to nonfarm payrolls in December while men lost 1,000 for a net increase of 74,000 jobs in December. Because women continued to add jobs in the past month, as of December, women hold more jobs on payrolls than ever. Men have regained 75 percent (4.5 million) of the jobs they lost between December 2007 and the trough for men’s employment in February 2010 (6 million). The gap between women’s and men’s employment is 1.5 million jobs in December, substantially less than at the start of the recession (3.4 million jobs in December 2007).

 

Fall 2013 – Winter 2014 Newsletter
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2014)

 

How Education Pays Off for Older Americans
by Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D. and Jeff Hayes (December 2013)

This report presents findings from an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the 2005-2009 American Community Survey data regarding the earnings of older men and women with different levels of education. The analysis was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and is part of IWPR’s on-going research concerning the economic status and security of older women and men.

 

Valuing Good Health in Newark: The Costs and Benefits of Earned Sick Time
by Claudia Williams, Susan Andrzejewski, and Jeff Hayes, Ph.D. (December 2013)

This briefing paper uses data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the New Jersey Department of Health, and the U.S. Census Bureau to evaluate costs and benefits of Newark’s Worker Sick Leave Ordinance. It estimates how much time off Newark workers would use under the proposed policy and the costs to employers for that earned sick time. This analysis also uses findings from previous peer-reviewed research to estimate cost-savings associated with the proposed policy, through reduced turnover, reduced spread of contagious disease in the workplace, prevention of productivity losses from employees working while sick, minimized nursing-home stays, and reduced norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes. The study is one of a series of analyses by IWPR examining the effects of earned sick day policies.

 

Job Growth Continues with 203,000 Jobs Added in November
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (December 2013)

According to an Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) analysis of the December employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), of the 203,000 total jobs added to nonfarm payrolls in November, women gained 94,000 of those jobs (46 percent) while men gained 109,000 jobs (54 percent).

 
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