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Recent Publications

Latest Reports from IWPR

Programs to Support Job Training Success: Innovations to Address Unmet Needs
by Julie Anderson, M.A., and Cynthia Hess, Ph.D. (January 2017)

This report provides profiles of programs that meet key unmet supportive service needs among job training participants. IWPR selected and studied eight programs employing innovative approaches to meeting child care, transportation, financial, and mental health needs, as well for addressing domestic violence. This report describes the programs’ strategies and methods for connecting trainees with supports to provide suggestions and inspiration to other programs seeking to expand their ability to meet clients’ supportive service needs. The report was informed by expert interviews, a research review on the need for supportive services in the workforce development system and promising models for providing these services, and the results of a survey of job training program administrators reflecting key unmet needs. This is the third report from an Institute for Women’s Policy Research project to study the prevalence and need for supportive services among job training participants, and strategies to meet their needs. The project was supported by the Walmart Foundation.

 

College Students with Children: National and Regional Profiles
by Elizabeth Noll, Ph.D., Lindsey Reichlin, M.A., and Barbara Gault, Ph.D. (January 2017)

This report provides a national and regional profile of undergraduate college students who are raising dependent children. Drawing on original analysis of national postsecondary education data, it quantifies the growth in the student parent population over time, both nationally and regionally, and describes trends in student parents’ economic status, their declining access to oncampus child care across regions, and the demands on their time while enrolled, in the context of their low rates of college attainment. This report is part of a broader project on independent student success funded by the Lumina Foundation.

 

Intersections of Stalking and Economic Security
by (January 2017)

Washington, DC—In recognition of National Stalking Awareness Month, the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) released a briefing paper documenting the economic insecurity faced by victims of stalking, who represent over one in six women and more than one in 19 men in the United States. The paper reviews available social science and policy research on the economic impact of stalking and presents data on the economic disparities faced by specific populations, including victims of color, with Native American women especially likely to experience stalking (24.5 percent of American Indian/Alaska Native women).

 

The Effects of FMLA Eligibility and Awareness on Family Leave-Taking
by (January 2017)

In this Issue Brief, we use data from the 2012 DOL Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee Survey to examine the effects of FMLA eligibility and awareness on whether workers utilize leave when faced with significant life events. This brief also examines the sources that typically inform employees about the FMLA and explores differences in FMLA awareness within and across subpopulations of the U.S. workforce. This brief is part of the Worker Leave Analysis and Simulation Issue Brief Series and is part of a study funded by the Department of Labor’s Chief Evaluation Office. For more findings in the Series, please visit https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation/WorkerLeaveStu dy/

 

Qualifying for Unpaid Leave: FMLA Eligibility among Working Mothers
by (January 2017)

In this Issue Brief, we explore Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) eligibility and leave use among working mothers using data from the 2012 U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Surveys. This brief is part of the Worker Leave Analysis and Simulation Issue Brief Series and is part of a study funded by the Department of Labor’s Chief Evaluation Office. For more findings in the Series, please visit https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation/Work erLeaveStudy/

 

Paid Leave and Employment Stability of First-Time Mothers
by (January 2017)

In this Issue Brief, we use data from the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation’s (SIPP) Fertility History Module to examine the association between paid leave use and the employment stability of first-time mothers. We find that first-time mothers who utilized paid leave are significantly less likely to quit their jobs before or after the birth, and are significantly more likely to work for the same employer upon returning to work. For more findings in the Worker Leave Analysis and Simulation Issue Brief Series, please visit https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation/W orkerLeaveStudy/

 

Family and Medical Leave-Taking among Older Workers
by IMPAQ International and Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2017)

In this Issue Brief, we explore family and medical leave use among older workers (55 and over) using data from the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL FMLA) Family and Medical Leave Act Surveys of 2000 and 2012. This brief is part of the Worker Leave Analysis and Simulation Issue Brief Series and is part of a study funded by the Department of Labor’s Chief Evaluation Office. For more findings in the Series, please visit https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation /WorkerLeaveStudy/

 

Estimating Usage and Costs of Alternative Policies to Provide Paid Sick Days in the United States
by IMPAQ International and Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2017)

This issue brief explores the costs of paid sick time for the U.S. workforce under three alternative models compared with current policy (which encompasses what employers do voluntarily and what they are required to do in some states and localities). Models were selected to provide cost estimates for a range of number of days provided. In addition, San Francisco adopted the first law in 2006 and Vermont adopted one of the more recent in 2016; a national proposal was used to represent the midrange of generosity.

 

Estimating the Distributional Impacts of Alternative Policies to Provide Paid Sick Days in the United States
by IMPAQ International and Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2017)

This Issue Brief explores the distributional impact of three alternative policy models for providing paid sick days taken from actual policies in the states and a federal proposal selected to show a range of generosity of provision (see Appendix Table A-1). San Francisco was the first U.S. locality to pass paid sick days in 2006. Their Paid Sick Leave Ordinance (PSLO) covers nearly all workers in San Francisco and provides up to five days per year for workers employed in small businesses (under ten employees) and up to nine days per year for workers employed in larger businesses. More recently, in March 2016, Vermont became the fifth state to pass paid sick days providing 3 days per year starting in 2017. However, Vermont workers must work at least 18 hours a week for at least 20 weeks to be eligible. At the national level, the Healthy Families Act has been introduced in Congress and proposes requiring larger employers (15 or more employees) to provide up to 7 paid sick days per year; smaller employers are not required to pay workers while they are on sick leave but would be required to allow them to return to work without retaliation.

 

Estimating Usage and Costs of Alternative Policies to Provide Paid Family and Medical Leave in the United States
by IMPAQ International and Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2017)

This brief summarizes a simulation analysis of five different paid family and medical leave model programs based on working programs in three states and a federal proposal, all applied to the national workforce. The analysis simulates worker behavior and estimates how many paid leaves would be taken under each model, the average weekly benefit level for each leave, and the total costs of the benefits paid. The analysis estimates the cost of benefits in dollars and as a share of total payroll for the nation as a whole and across industries and establishments of different sizes. As a share of national payroll, total benefits estimated to be paid out range from 0.45 percent to 0.63 percent of payroll depending on the generosity of the model simulated.

 

Wealth Inequality and Asset Depletion among Single Early Baby Boomers: Differences by Gender, Race/Ethnicity and Home Ownership in Retirement Readiness
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (January 2017)

 

Access to Paid Sick Time in Maryland
by Jessica Milli, Ph.D. (January 2017)

Approximately 39 percent of private sector workers in Maryland lack paid sick time, and low-income and part-time workers are especially unlikely to be covered. Access to paid sick time promotes safe and healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness (Kumar, et al. 2013; Drago 2010) and workplace injuries (Asfaw, Pana-Cryan, and Rosa 2012), reduces health care costs (Miller, Williams, and Yi 2011), and helps working adults fulfill caregiving responsibilities (Allen, et al. 2014). This briefing paper presents estimates of access to paid sick time in Maryland by sex, race and ethnicity, occupation, part/full-time employment status, and earnings levels through analyses of government data sources, including the 2013–2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS).

 

Job Growth Among Men Improves: Nearly 2 Out of 3 Jobs Added in the 4th Quarter of 2016 Went to Men
by (January 2017)

 

The Status of Women in Florida by County: Poverty & Opportunity
by Julie Anderson, M.A. Cynthia Hess, Ph.D. (December 2016)

The Status of Women in Florida by County: Poverty & Opportunity, is one in a series of four publications on women’s status across Florida’s counties commissioned by the Florida Women's Funding Alliance, an affinity group of Florida Philanthropic Network. This report is released in tandem with “The Status of Women in Florida by County: Population & Diversity,” which analyzes the demographics of women and men in the state. The final two reports in this series will examine women’s health and well-being in Florida and women’s employment and earnings. The publication series is funded by the Florida Women’s Funding Alliance, an affinity group of the Florida Philanthropic Network. The report builds on the Institute for Women’s Policy Research’s long-standing report series, The Status of Women in the States, which has provided data on the status of women nationally and for all 50 states plus the District of Columbia since 1996. The Status of Women in the States publications use data from U.S. government and other sources to analyze women’s status across multiple issue areas. These reports have been used to highlight women’s progress and the obstacles they continue to face and to encourage policy and programmatic changes that can improve women’s opportunities.

 

Supportive Services in Workforce Development Programs: Administrator Perspectives on Availability and Unmet Needs
by Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Emma Williams-Baron, Barbara Gault, Ph.D., and Ariane Hegewisch, M.Phil. (December 2016)

This report presents findings from a national, online survey of 168 administrators of job training and career and technical education programs. It examines administrators’ perspectives on the role of supportive services such as child care and transportation assistance in improving program completion, the availability of supportive services across different types of training programs, the unmet support needs of job training participants, and sources of funding and cost-effective strategies for providing supportive services. The report was informed by expert interviews on the need for supportive services in the workforce development system and promising models for providing these services. It is the second report of a larger Institute for Women’s Policy Research project that is funded by the Walmart Foundation. The first report in the series, Supportive Services in Job Training and Education: A Research Review, presents findings from a review and analysis of literature on the importance, effectiveness, and availability of supportive services for participants in job training programs in the United States.

 

Fall 2016 Quarterly Newsletter
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (December 2016)

 

Equity in Innovation: Women Inventors and Patents
by Jessica Milli, Ph.D., Emma Williams-Baron, Meika Berlan, Jenny Xia, Barbara Gault, Ph.D. (December 2016)

This report compiles existing data on women and patenting. It explores both women’s underrepresentation among patent holders and their relative success in being granted patents when they apply for them. The report identifies the technology classes that women are most likely to patent in, and examines the overall success of patents granted to women as measured by their assignment rates and citation counts. The report draws on the social science literature to identify major obstacles that women face to patenting and, based on the research findings, presents several recommendations to help to close the gender patenting gap. This report was funded by Qualcomm, Inc.

 

Supportive Services in Job Training and Education: A Research Review
by Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Yana Mayayeva, Lindsey Reichlin, and Mala Thakur (November 2016)

This report presents findings from a review and analysis of literature on the importance, effectiveness, and availability of support services for participants in job training programs in the United States. It assesses current knowledge about these services by examining reports on training and education programs, as well as literature on the importance of supportive services for low-income individuals in general. The report also examines the availability of supportive services in the workforce development system, funding sources for these services, and common barriers to employment and training—such as lack of access to child care, transportation, and stable housing—that these supports can address. The report was informed by interviews with 25 experts on workforce development and supportive services. It is a part of a larger Institute for Women’s Policy Research project on the role of supportive services in promoting job training and employment success that is funded by the Walmart Foundation.

 

Undervalued and Underpaid in America: Women in Low-Wage, Female-Dominated Jobs
by Elyse Shaw, M.A., Ariane Hegewisch, M.Phil., Emma Williams-Baron, and Barbara Gault, Ph.D. (November 2016)

This report investigates women’s experiences in large, low-wage, growing, female-dominated occupations, comparing demographic data and indicators of economic security between 1994 and 2014, and projecting growth rates to 2024. It focuses on 22 occupations fitting these criteria, and analyzes these jobs’ size and wages, racial and ethnic composition, share of parents and single parents, workers’ educational attainment, poverty rates and reliance on social assistance programs, and documents, where possible, how these indicators have changed between 1994 and 2014. The report also discusses the occupations’ projected growth between 2014 and 2024, and discusses public policy choices that could improve workers’ circumstances in the coming decades. The report is part of IWPR’s Employment and Job Quality initiative, and was funded by Oxfam America and the Ford Foundation. In collaboration with IWPR, Oxfam America produced a complementary report titled Undervalued and Underpaid in America: The Deck is Stacked against Millions of Working Women available at www.oxfamamerica.org.

 

The Economic Status of Women in New York State
by Yana Mayayeva, Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Jessica Milli, Ph.D., and Julie Anderson M.A. (November 2016)

This briefing paper assesses women’s economic status in New York state, drawing comparisons with other states in the Middle Atlantic region and the nation overall. It examines how women in New York fare on two composite indices—Employment & Earnings and Poverty & Opportunity—and their component indicators. (For more on these indicators and IWPR’s Status of Women in the States initiative, see Appendix I or visit www.statusofwomendata.org.) The briefing paper also considers how women’s status in New York has changed over the last decade, highlights differences across age and racial and ethnic groups, and identifies policy recommendations to further improve women’s status.

 
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